Apply Topically: A Practical Guide to Formulating Topical Application

Nava Dayan, PhD

Format Details

  • 688 Pages
  • Published 2014

    Print Format

  • Hardcover
  • ISBN-13: 9781937235512
  • Description
  • Table of Contents
  • Author Information
  • Expert Review

The Ultimate Handbook on Topical Product Development

  • Addresses Day-to-Day Formulating Challenges
  • Offers Valuable “Tips” and Troubleshooting Issues
  • Discover Advances in Formulation and Development, Raw Materials and Active Ingredients, Compound Testing, and Clinical Assessment
  • Focused Content on Properties

The conceptualization and formulation of skin care products intended for topical use is a multifaceted and evolving area of science. Formulators must account for myriad skin types, as well as a very temperamental retail market. This book offers practical approach to the formulation chemist’s day-to-day endeavors by: addressing the innumerable challenges facing the chemist both in design and at bench, such as formulating with/for specific properties; offering valuable “tips” to troubleshooting issues regarding ingredient selection and interaction, regulatory concerns that must be addressed early in development, and the extrapolation of preservative systems; exploring the advantages and limitations of raw materials; addressing scale-up and pilot production process and concerns; and much more.

Dr. Dayan, whose history in the skin care industry includes more than 150 publication credits and an In-cosmetics Gold Award for product innovation, has endeavored to bring you the ultimate handbook on topical product development. This book includes exclusive expert examination and reportage from industry icons such as Roger L. McMullen, Paul Thau, Hemi Nae, Ada Polla, Howard Epstein, Joseph Albanese, Mark Chandler, Steve Herman, Gary Kelm, Patricia Aikens, and Sam Shefer, along with many others.

Explore and examine the following Chapter Sections:

  • Preliminary Considerations and Selection of Raw Materials
  • Formulation, Processing and Production Techniques
  • Testing and Measurements Methods
  • Sensory and Elegancy
  • Stability and Preservation
  • Color Cosmetics
  • Sunscreens
  • Preface
  • SECTION I: Preliminary Considerations and Selection of Raw Materials
    • Chapter 1 Pre-formulation Design and Considerations by Howard Epstein, PhD
    • Chapter 2 The Use of Thickeners in Topically Applied Formulations by Jed Riemer and Tom Russo
    • Chapter 3 The Incorporation of Delivery Systems into Topical Formulations: A Case Study on the Use of Salicylic Acid for Acne Treatment by Nripen S. Sharma, PhD; Bryan Grossman; and Sam Shefer, PhD
    • Chapter 4 Formulating Skin Care Products with Silicones: Approaches and Strategies by Bartley Maxon and Michael Starch
    • Chapter 5 The Use of Corn-derived Ingredients in Personal Care Applications by Cindy Yu
  • SECTION II: Formulation, Processing and Production Techniques
  • SECTION III: Testing and Measurements Methods
    • Chapter 10 Using Experimental Design to Optimize Formulations by Joseph Albanese
    • Chapter 11 Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations by Hemi Nae, PhD
    • Chapter 12 Viscosity Measurement For Topically Applied Formulations by Daphne Benderly, PhD
    • Chapter 13 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic Imaging Analysis of Topical Formulations by Samuel Gourion-Arsiquand, Joel Coret, and David J. Moore
  • SECTION IV: Sensory and Elegancy
    • Chapter 14 Creating Appealing Topically Applied Formulations: Linking Physical Aspects to Marketing Psychology by J. Mark Chandler
    • Chapter 15 The Use of Fragrance in Topically Applied Formulations by Steve Herman
  • SECTION V: Stability and Preservation
    • Chapter 16 Stability Testing for Topical Formulation Development by Gary R. Kelm, PhD
    • Chapter 17 Preservation of Topical Formulations: An Historical and Practical Overview by Slawomir Paul Cebulski
    • Chapter 18 Microbiological Stability for Skin Care Formulations by Kausar Malik
  • SECTION VI: Color Cosmetics
    • Chapter 19 Lip Care Product Formulation Strategies by Daniel Sango and David Binder
    • Chapter 20 Formulation of Nail Care Products by Robert W. Sandewicz
  • SECTION VII: Sunscreens
    • Chapter 21 Formulation of Sunscreens in the United States by Patricia Aikens
    • Chapter 22 Formulating a Day Cream with SPF: A Case Study by Anne Pouillot, MS; Rachel Ametsitsi, MS; and Ada S. Polla, MBA
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Author Biographies
  • Index

Nava Dayan, PhD, is founder and president of a skin science and research consultancy serving the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and personal care industries. Dr. Dayan’s 24 years of experience in the greater personal care segment, during which she was head of R&D and safety assessment at Lipo Chemicals, have yielded more than 150 publication credits in numerous industry-respected journals and books, as well as an In-Cosmetics Gold Award for innovation and commensurate recognition from the NYSCC for excellence. Dayan holds a PhD in pharmaceutics from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and is the bearer of several patent applications for original work in skin actives and delivery systems.

Chapter Author Biographies

"Intended for chemists new to the skin care product industry, this handbook describes the current approaches for formulating, manufacturing, and testing commercial cosmetic and pharmaceutical products that are applied to the skin. A detailed chapter on making skin care products with silicones provides specific formularies for face cream, cosmetics, sunscreen, cleansers, and shampoos. Other topics of the 22 chapters include texture profile analysis of emulsions, scale-up from lab to pilot production, foam as a delivery vehicle, rheological properties, viscosity measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging analysis, and stability testing."

—Eithne O'Leyne, Editor ProtoView

“Apply Topically” provides a comprehensive overview to formulating topical applications. It serves as a valuable guide for formulation chemists at any level. Complex information is supplemented with straightforward models, cases, and illustrations, to ensure the reader’s thorough understanding of the material. “Apply Topically” reviews the fundamentals to formulating topical applications, in addition to providing contemporary approaches to optimizing formulas.

Chapter 1 offers great teaching material for beginner formulation chemists. This chapter provides a basic introduction to product development, which elaborates on planning and executing formulation development. In addition, the chapter also gives insight into how to read technical product sheets, and safety and regulatory considerations that a formulator need to be aware of, before embarking on producing a new cosmetic formulation.

Chapter 3 on delivery system gives and excellent overview of topical delivery systems such as liposomes and other encapsulation technologies, focusing on topical delivery of salicylic acid. However, its narrow focus on salicylic acid alone does not give a full appreciation of the bigger issue of stabilizing and enhancing the topical delivery of active compounds in cosmetic formulations.

Chapter 10 is particularly informative and enlightening in its instruction on using experimental design to optimize formulations. The chapter provides a range of statistical designs that can be used in a prognostic manner in order to predict synergistic interactions and opportunities of a formula in an efficient way. Additionally, the circumstances in which to best use each of the statistical approaches is provided, which serves useful.

Chapter 16 is very useful in reviewing the fundamental issues relating to topical product stability. The section on packaging interaction and product/package compatibility is well covered. This is an issue very important, but often not discussed much by cosmetic formulators. The issue of “chemical stability’ of active components in a cosmetic formula is an important one. This is not covered in this chapter. As the author correctly point out, (page 454),” this is beyond the scope of this chapter and will not be discussed in detail”. However, it would be useful to include a chapter in future editions a review of methods used for following the chemical stability of active compounds in formulations.

Chapter 17 gives an excellent overview on preservatives used in topical formulations, their limitations and uses. The author rightfully indicates the inadequate preservation provided by the “natural” alternatives, although it is becoming more fashionable in cosmetic formulations to label as “no artificial preservatives”.

—Kumar Pillai, PhD., Director, Early Clinical Research, L'Oreal USA, New Jersey

—Megan Manco, M.S., Senior Scientist, Early Clinical Research, L'Oreal USA, New Jersey

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